You have to take this one step at a time.
You say your login is not working, but you have a problem with your keys.
You must get your server to work properly first before you setup key-based logins. ie, if your server refuses the connection, there is just no way to get in.
You should be able to connect from any client with
ssh yourname@your_server_ipif the server listens on port 22, then you do not need to specify a port, as ssh defaults to 22, otherwise, use the '-p [PORT_NUMBER]' flag on the connect command.
Make sure the server is up and running. Test using
ssh your_user_name@localhost or
service sshd statusOn the default Vectorlinux 6 and 7 configuration, this should work. If you added firewalls after your default installation, try disabling your firewall and try to connect again to make sure your problem is really the ssh setup and not the firewall setup.
After you got the server responding and you're sure it's not a firewall problem, post back and i'll tell you how to setup your key-based login.